Le Sicilien is a comedy-ballet in one act. It had been composed for the Fêtes de Saint-Germain, which were given again on the 15th of January, 1667; and merely, according to the king's wish, to bring Turks and Moors on the stage. That was the times when a caprice of the king could give birth to works of such value. Till then plays in one act had been considered, like farces, as meant to rest the mind from the attention given to the serious drama. This play seems to have been the germ of the modern opera-comique. Many great personages of the Court figured in it: the king, M le Grand, the Marquises de Villeroi and de Rassan, as Moors of quality; Madame and Mademoiselle de la Vallière, Madame de Rochefort and Mademoiselle de Brancos, as Moorish ladies, etc.
It was acted in Paris on the 10th of June, 1667. Moliere, who had been absent from the theatre through the illness which was to prove fatal to him, played Don Pedro.