Victor Hugo (26 February 1802 – 22 May 1885) was a French poet, novelist, and dramatist who was the most well-known of all the French Romantic writers. In France, his fame is based first in poetry, but outside of France his best-known works are the novels Les Misérables (1862), and Notre-Dame de Paris (The Hunchback of Notre-Dame) (1831).
Victor Hugo's first mature work of fiction appeared in 1829, and reflected the acute social conscience that would infuse his later work. Le Dernier jour d'un condamné (The Last Day of a Condemned Man) would have a profound influence on later writers such as Albert Camus, Charles Dickens, and Fyodor Dostoevsky. Hugo began planning a major novel about social misery and injustice as early as the 1830s, but it would take a full 17 years for Les Misérables to be realized and finally published in 1862.
He was elected to the French Academy in 1841. He died in 1885 at the age of 83.